by Tchaikovsky. edit the lyrics to give viewers more time to read them. If the speech belongs to an out-of-shot speaker or is voice-over commentary, then it's not so essential for the subtitles to keep in sync. # Oh, I believe in yesterday. Use caps also to indicate when words are shouted or screamed: However, avoid large chunks of text in caps as they can be hard to read. (different colours with a white label). EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D are subsets of TTML 'Hello, Mr Meldrew. Aim to give more time when there are several speakers in one subtitle. This must include the speaker’s identity, If you do not know the name of the speaker, indicate the gender or age of the speaker if this is necessary for the viewer's understanding: MAN: I was brought up At this time, BBC logos were mechanical models filmed by black-and-white cameras. Create a paragraph with manual line breaks for each subtitle and add timings for each paragraph. Both versions are given here but only If the subtitles for a song don't start from its first line, show this by using two continuation dots at the beginning: # ..Now I need a 10/9/06 - Bug Fix - Color and Size. If you have to let a subtitle hang over a shot change, do not remove it too soon after the cut. About BBC Font. editor. For example, Turn to wisdom. Since its foundation, the logo of BBC has undergone several changes. Not all possible elements are included (for example, elements required for do a mixture of both - edit and combine song-lines. Added a section describing the details of EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D documents with a downloadable example document and further links to examples provided by IRT. Live subtitles are justified left (not centred). Timing may be applied to a tt:p element using the A logical container of subtitle text. The double height line was used instead of a single height line for readability when commonly used television sizes were much smaller than today's median sizes (see BBC This is more likely to be needed in drama than factual content. This string is appended with a hyphen and the value of the Revision BBC to the EBU namespace. The subtitles should match the pace of speaking as closely as possible. It is not recommended Note that the recommended behaviour for, When laying out line areas inset the line areas by twice the value of. have an origin x coordinate of 14.375%) to allow for it to be displayed in its entirety even if a centre cut out is used to display the central 4:3 area of a 16:9 root container region. Background color applies to the line area including the padding. < When I find out Where

s are used for semantic information, it may be specified as metadata, using attributes such as raised. Specific actual values are indicated with double quotes, like this: "2". be clearly labelled to explain the technique. online Arrow characters (← and →) can be used instead of < and > for online-only subtitles. Colours). This is most likely to happen in an interchange between speakers, where the first speaker talks much faster than the second. online € ♫ (replaces # to indicate music) ← → (arrows can replace < and >). Future versions will build on these guidelines or describe changes, or address issues The width of the background is calculated per line, rather than being the largest rectangle that can fit all the displayed lines in. Three lines may be used if you are confident that no important picture information will be obscured. you'll be the first to know. This differs from the end time expressions in EBU-TT and TTML, which are exclusive. get Many subtitles therefore start on the first frame of the shot and end on the last frame. Set overflow to "visible" so that subtitles are visible even if they overflow. . To indicate a sarcastic statement, use an exclamation mark in brackets (without a space in between): To indicate a sarcastic question, use a question mark in brackets: You're not going to He didn’t tell me you would be here. instead of their depreciated HTML tag counterparts. There should be a match between the voice and subtitles as far as possible. Note that if tts:wrapOption is set to Every

is required by EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D to have an xml:id attribute. Give less time to avoid editing out words that can be lip-read, but only in very specific circumstances: i.e. Yes. However be aware that too many on-air corrections, or corrections that are not sufficiently prompt, can actually make the subtitles harder for a viewer to follow. If scaling down the font size, also reduce the line padding. when not using cumulative subtitles, use the attributes. ebuttm:binaryDataElement. Queries and comments may be raised at any time on the subtitle guidelines github project by those with This illustration shows how the document above is interpreted The previous major version of this document remains available at It is recommended that you also familiarise yourself with Timed Text Markup Language and SMPTE timecodes. Note that this attribute can contain a prioritised list of font names, which are typically processed in order until a match is found, thus allowing predictable fallbacks to be used. Focus on colour and vertical positioning. I'm glad to hear that. Similarly, if you want a font size of 10px, then specify 0.625em (10/16 = 0.625); for 22px, specify 1.375em (22/16). Where possible, avoid extending a subtitle into the next shot when the speaker has stopped speaking, particularly if this is a dramatic reaction shot. If the media player is embedded in the page the layout should change to accommodate the subtitle display. of existing files with legacy techniques is acceptable, but unless specifically requested, new content should not use legacy techniques. Note that there is currently little research to indicate the effectiveness of italics for emphasis in subtitles. to control line length using a character count limit only: this is a crude method that does not take into account the width of individual letters and fonts. The font used for the letters is very similar to a sans serif called Gill Sans Std. sub-edit incoherent speech into beautiful prose. the case. For example, you would Depending on the speed of speech, there are exceptions to this general recommendation (see live Maximum Number of Displayable Characters in any text row. You Guidelines for both platforms are summarised yes, I and my wife have This will affect your choice of vocabulary. clue to the story-line. Optional. When characters move about while speaking, the caption should be positioned at the discretion of the subtitler to identify the position of the speaker as clearly as possible. In that case, and if it is necessary for the viewer's understanding of the context of the content, use a label to make the accent clear: AMERICAN ACCENT: Editing and styling subtitles: read the Presentation section for text, format and timing guidelines. tts:textAlign. actual words or any accompanying graphics. Two-lines of scrolling text should be used. White can be used for any number of speakers. – Found anything? online Instead of # the symbol, ♫ may be used. Note that if the region height is exceeded by entering too many immediately following the war, small. never heard in the Bible... #. (i.e. Almost always 1 except for very long programmes where the subtitles may be split into multiple files (one per 'disk'). For instance, if it takes 15 seconds to sing one line of a hymn, your subtitle should be on the screen for 15 seconds. Lake District since I was a boy. In general, subtitles for children should follow the speed of speech. Open an example in Overleaf Although grid of 40x24 cells that (for BBC use) must be preserved in EBU-TT files authored for linear broadcast (ttp:cellResolution="40 24"), even though EBU-TT does not require use of this specific grid. What could you do Impaired viewers make use of visual cues from the faces of television speakers. The computed value of font size must be appropriate to result in the correct size relative to the active video. Should you use cumulative subtitles to convey the rhythm of speech (for example, if rapping)? Instead, this document provides some guidelines and practical advice. Timings must be in the format HH:MM:SS followed by a fraction (e.g. See example in, Vertical positioning is controlled mainly by the, Horizontal positioning is controlled by the, MUSIC: "The Dance Of Since its foundation, the logo of BBC has undergone several changes. content for identifying in-vision speakers (it may be present in a change of speaker. You can change the text size on article pages by using the menu at the right of the red header bar. ball) and in such cases top screen positioning will be a more acceptable standard. displayed). Additionally (through out of band mechanisms) provide downloadable font resources that map to the font family name that is used, to provide an expected behaviour. Although EBU-TT allows pixel length units, the BBC requires that only percent or cell units are used. too many 'M's and 'W's). This will affect the editing process as well as when to leave the screen clear. with the heat from the incinerator? When subtitling schools programmes, introduce complex vocabulary in very simple sentences and keep it on screen for as Don’t use cumulatives if they will cover mouths, or other important visuals, Stick to a maximum of three lines unless you are subtitling a fast quiz like University Challenge where it is preferable to show the whole question in one subtitle and where you will not be obscuring any interesting visuals. (where no UID exists). The final displayed size of closed captions text is determined by multiple factors: the instructions in the subtitle file, the processor and the set of installed fonts available to it, the device screen size and resolution and (on some devices) what they do and any organisations they represent. If this approach is adopted italics should be used in most instances, with caps reserved for heavier emphasis (e.g. The subtitle file formats used by the BBC allow non-presentation metadata that can be used to include information about the speaker of a subtitle. First we're going to However, point on iPhone 8 is 1/163rd of an inch. For example, if you subtitle a scene where a character is speaking rapidly, these are some of the decisions you may have to make: Clearly, it is not possible (or advisable) to provide a set of hard rules that cover all situations. Where there is a time-lapse between the two subtitles, put three If a subtitle needs to be moved while it is visible and inserting
elements is not possible then the

should be ended and a new

begun that references a differently positioned region. For linear playout, all characters for presentation must be in the set in Appendix 1. Avoid editing by changing the form of a verb. All subtitle documents should be encoded in UTF-8, however the actual set of code points usable in an EBU-TT 1.0 document intended for broadcast presentation is currently restricted to the Teletext character For example, in an STL file a subtitle with a TCO of BBC Reith, named after our organisation's founder, John Reith, is a contemporary humanist typeface. Sentences should be segmented at natural linguistic breaks such that each subtitle forms an integrated linguistic unit. Often, the aim of schools programmes is to introduce new vocabulary and to familiarize pupils with complex terminology. This is usually (but not always) 10:00:00:00. word. The number of lines that fit within a region is therefore affected by line height: subtitles may occupy. Where

s are used for semantic information, it may be specified as metadata, using attributes such as ttm:role, xml:lang etc and/or a The closest fit is probably "description". Represents a logical paragraph. In a news item or factual content, the main aim is to convey the "what, when, who, how, why". Put a single quote-mark at the beginning of each new subtitle (or segment, in live), but do not close the single quotes at the end of each subtitle/segment - only close them when the person has finished speaking, as is the case with paragraphs This means that the timing of song lyric subtitles will not always follow the conventional timings The first of its logo is known as the coat of arms of the BBC then the first version of its famous blocks logo was introduced in 1958. the basket from the old lady. Should you use one, two or three lines of subtitles? The syntax to set a font size or font style is easy: This example shows how to use the smallest available font (tiny) in LaTeX and the small capsstyle. Sometimes this will be appropriate, but normally you should aim to edit out a bit of every sentence. See the. If a speaker is interrupted by another speaker or event, put three dots at the end of the incomplete speech. takes one kJ of energy to lift someone. those constraints are incorporated into these guidelines. Calculate the line height for a line area using the font's ascender, descender and lineGap attributes, including leading if available. You know who you are! This sometimes works, but more often than not the change of tense produces a nonsense sentence. There is an alternative approach in which multiple p elements are each timed to follow on from each other, with the first words being a repeat of the words in the previous p and additional words appended. and be set to "visible". The edit can affect the content as well as the structure of anything that follows. If the subtitles are intended for broadcast, a limited set of characters must be used. Avoid editing out names when they are used to address people. gaps in if the time can be used for text. There will be occasions when you will feel the need to go faster or slower than the standard timings - the same guidelines apply here as with adult timings (see Timing). leaving? EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1 etc) or if the document type is undetermined then if no, Defines the directions for stacking block and inline areas within a region area. The URI of the classification scheme should be specified in the link attribute with the term ID. For small mobile phones (e.g. For example, consecutive subtitles may reflect better the pace of speech. A maximum subtitle length of two lines is recommended. arrows immediately after the speech, preceded by one space. In EBU-TT-based implementations, line length is determined by the following attributes: Because line breaks require considering all of the above, they are better inserted manually. Where these constraints We need energy so our bodies can grow and stay warm. and rate of speech. Select text and Raise an See, Identifying in-vision speakers (legacy technique). Use alphanumeric and English punctuation characters: > < & @ # % + * = / £ $ ¢ Â¥ © ® ¼ ½ ¾ ¾ ™, Additional characters are supported but not normally used (see sport). Note that setting the feature to "visible" does not guarantee that content that overflows the region will be presented, for example if it overflows the active video region ("root container"). Intended to hold semantic information, for example sections within a programme. Live subtitles (cued blocks and cumulative) are normally left-aligned. An overview of subtitles: read this introduction and the first few sections of Presentation, Timing, Identifying speakers and EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D Documents in detail. 4" diagonal screen size) the presentation size should be the unmodified authored font size (i.e. 2009. to vary the timing to convey the full meaning of the original. Problems occur with justification when a short sentence or phrase is followed by a longer one. Remember that what might make sense when it is heard might make little or no sense when it is read. Note, however, that the size of line padding is expressed in cell units, requiring additional calculation. Aim for longer timing if your subtitle crosses one shot or more, as viewers will need longer to read it. R&D White Paper 287 (PDF): A Survey of UK Television Viewing In some cases vertical displacement is not sufficient to avoid obscuring important information, for example when placing the captions above a graphic would cover a face. with a leading period, e.g. Guidelines V1.1’. But before you do so, please read the text below, as we answer some questions you may have about our re-design. a better television service. You do not need to use dots every time you split a sentence across two or more subtitles. by putting groups of words that appear with the same timing within a span with begin and end attributes. online Use the correct Unicode symbol for the currency, e.g. We currently broadcast teletext subtitles on our digital satellite platforms: by connecting a television to a set top box using for example a SCART connector it is still possible to See the references for more detail on this. BBCode or Bulletin Board Code is a lightweight markup language used to format posts in many message boards.The available tags are usually indicated by square brackets ([ ]) surrounding a keyword, and they are parsed by the message board system before being translated into a markup language that web browsers understand—usually HTML or XHTML.. BBCode was introduced in 1998 by the … (BBC-SPG). authoring font size. If you had the word "color" or "size" in your text the converter would convert it to ][color or ][size. Made table of contents expandable, set to include top level details only on load. Check out the fonts used in famous logos and covers of various music albums. broadcast Prepared subtitles for linear programmes must use the SMPTE timebase with a start of programme aligned to the source media. structure between the versions, with some elements moved from the This could result in only half of the subtitle being read. Use this method only when the content justifies
s may be placed in regions, which apply to the div and all its descendants. Times New Roman, a staple of any users of Microsoft Word, was created in 1932 for the Times of London. In such cases, broadcast In dialogue sequences it is often helpful to use horizontal displacement in order to distinguish between different speakers. in a wide font you can be reasonably confident that lines will not reflow. or elements. The Subtitle Guidelines describe best practice for authoring subtitles and provide instructions for making subtitle files for the BBC. There’s no wisdom to destroy, # Turn to wisdom, Examples indicate the appearance of a subtitle. files created before it was deprecated). In reality Teletext subtitles are rendered within a safe area which Some film techniques introduce the soundtrack for the next scene before the scene change has occurred. from their live subtitles are not included). The following guidelines are recommended for the subtitling of programmes targeted at children below the age of 11 years (ITC). Yes! for EBU-TT-D. [OnAir UID][version #]-[sub file version]. private: void ComboBox1_SelectedIndexChanged(System::Object^ sender, System::EventArgs^ e) { // Cast the sender object back to a ComboBox. fonts, making it impossible to determine the width of the line based on the number of characters alone. Readers who do not have access to the project should email In bbctt:div: 0..* | In bbctt:chapter: 1..*. online For scheduled programmes (with an On Air UID), the file must be named [UID with slash removed].ebuttd.xml. s within a

; this approach is preferred to a set of differently timed where he is, Added anchor links by headings for ease of reference. If colour cannot be used (or if colour is being used but two consecutive speakers are both assigned the same colour), put each piece of speech on a separate line and insert a white dash (not a hyphen) before each piece of speech, thereby clearly The specifications HTML and CSS sadly do not work on Ovipets. Assuming you are familiar with XML and CSS, start with Introduction to the TTML document structure and Example EBU-TT-D document. Helvetica for iOS and Roboto for Android). However, if the music is not part of the action but is crucial for the viewer’s understanding of the plot, a can contain the same words and style references. leave this area. For BBC subtitles, set the font size to be approximately 1/15th (6.667%) of the height of the root container, for example by setting. [EBU-TT 1.1] files should use ttp:timeBase="clock" and Fall back to the system defined sans serif font if a downloadable font is not available. This should be in white caps, ranged left above the in-vision subtitle, followed by a colon.

s: this is a constraint in EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D rather than in TTML. Prepared subtitles must be delivered as a 2-file set for broadcast and as a single file for online-only. ebutts:multiRowAlign should be avoided (i.e. Random segmentation must certainly be avoided: On two minor If the offending word is bleeped, put the word BLEEP in the appropriate place in the subtitle - in caps, in a contrasting colour and without an exclamation mark. Clip any region that extends beyond the root container region (the rectangle corresponding to an origin of 0% 0% with an extent 100% 100%) to the area that intersects with the root container region. If the information contained within the graphics is off-topic from what is being spoken, then the information should not be replicated in the subtitle. Avoid obscuring important information (such as captions and mouths) when, Indicate the direction of off-screen sounds. Required. if the data is not needed by the presentation processor. That new

However, viewers tend to prefer verbatim subtitles, so the rate may be adjusted to match the pace of the programme. inclusive of the last frame; in other words the subtitle shall be visible on the frame indicated in the TCO value but not on subsequent frames. It is common practice to place metadata (programme ID, name etc.) Their implementation will depend on the content, the genre and on the The exception to this would be content with a lot of shifting main characters like EastEnders, where it is permissible to have two characters per colour, providing they do not appear together. The current logo of BBC, which was redesigned by Lambie Nairn and introduced in 1997, consists of three blocks, each containing one letter. Enter the correct year in the copyright element in the template: BBC 2016. This can be achieved by referencing a region that is positioned centrally (horizontally), and a style with tts:textAlign="center" and ebutts:multiRowAlign either unspecified or set to "auto". Along with reading distance, the physical height of the video when displayed on the device's screen is the most direct determinant of font size as a proportion of video height. It is less confusing to avoid use of pixel units In general, a valid EBU-TT-D Gill Sans is a commercial font and you can purchase and download the font here. dots at the end of the first subtitle and two dots at the beginning The "Fonts in Use" section features posts about fonts used in logos, films, TV shows, video games, books and more; The "Text Generator" section features simple tools that let you create graphics with fonts of different styles as well as various text effects; The "Fonts Collection" section is the place where you can browse, filter, custom preview and download free fonts. In quizzes - to separate questions and answers, In songs - e.g. The processor displays the larger font size, as authored. new sentence to coincide with the shot change. This does not mean that you should always When I find out where he is, You should however avoid inconsistent timings e.g. symbol for the time metric, e.g. Definition for BBC EBU-TT metadata. Line 18 is used if three subtitle lines are required). If it's already visible it will flash the heading off and on. Tech3350 (version 1.1), 'EBU-TT-D Subtitling Distribution Format', approved in advance and the specification confirmed. The following symbols are used throughout this document. in a subtitle at the beginning of the file. Note that the above standards support a larger set of characters than is allowed by the BBC. Try to allow extra reading time for your subtitles in the following circumstances: Try to give more generous timings whenever you consider that viewers might find a word or phrase extremely hard to read without more time. A style with tts:textAlign set to "start" (always works) or "left" for left to right text only or "right" for right to left text only should be used. context, insert a ‘greater than’ (>) or ‘less than’ (<) symbols to indicate the off-camera speaker. Most processors use a narrower font, so if you author When available to the subtitler, pre-recorded segments should be subtitled prior to broadcast (not live) and cued out at the appropriate moment. See the EBU-TT specification], "Enhanced Teletext Level 1" | "DVBBitmapSubtititles" | "EBU-TT-D". tts:fontSize="1c 1c" or If the amount of placing needed would mean editing Setting the width of a region to 71.25%, with zero padding, should be sufficient to carry all 38 possible characters across a Teletext line and add 0.5c line padding. set. Generally it is better to use system font for readability (e.g. This section contains detailed instruction for developers of subtitle authoring tools that output EBU-TT or EBU-TT-D documents, and for processors of those files. In addition to BBC, Gill Sans typeface is also used in the following logos, movie posters or album covers etc., including: Thomann Logo, Saab, Alvin and the Chipmunks, Juliet, Tommy Hilfiger, Tag Heuer, Mr. Popper’s Penguins, The King’s Speech, Meerkat Manor, Advance Auto Parts, AMD, Toy Story, A Haunted House, United Express, Gravity Rush (video game). If the onscreen graphics are not easily legible because of the streamed image size or quality, the subtitles must include any text contained within those graphics which provide contextual information. The corresponding date of creation of the earliest begin time expression (i.e. Update the copyright. subtitler’s expertise. The line breaks are resized with the rest of the text. BBC Arabic font family | For displaying the day of the month, use the appropriate numeral followed by lowercase "th", "st" or "nd": Use the numerals plus the £ sign for all monetary amounts except where the amount is less than £1.00: For amounts less than £1.00 the word "pence" should be used after the numeral: If the word "pound" is used in sentence without referring to a specific amount, then the word must be used, not the symbol. are possible, they are separated by a pipe: "1" | "2" | "3". Although the default value is "wrap", it is better to have the subtitler, rather than the software, control line breaks by inserting . The examples below illustrate devices and their recommended multipliers. is to be preferred. "editedLive". The first value defines the number of columns and the second value defines the number of rows. Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairy", around 10% of broadcast viewers use subtitles regularly, increasing to 35% for some online content, documents previously published by Ofcom and the BBC, Introduction to the TTML document structure. Replace special characters with their escaped version as detailed in Encoding characters. This approach is likely to change when we are no longer Unless this is unavoidable, keep to complete clauses. Do not dip below the target timing unless there is no other way of getting round a problem. See Appendix 2 for a sample XML and Appendix 3 for the XSD. Most of this document applies to both online and broadcast subtitles. better television service. deprecated or sourced from outside the UK). If the break has to be elsewhere in the sentence, avoid splitting the following parts of speech: However, since the dictates of space within a subtitle are more severe than between subtitles, line breaks may also take place after a verb. This is the XSD for the BBC metadata section of the EBU-TT document. R&D White Paper 287 (PDF) for relevant research on this). Good line-breaks are extremely important because they make the process of reading and understanding far easier. If the music is "incidental music" but is an unknown piece, written purely to add atmosphere or dramatic effect, do not label it. The timebase must be set to 'media'. Brackets can also be used to indicate an aside, which may or may not be whispered. If there are shot changes within the sequence, should the subtitles be synchronised with those? When there are differences between subtitles intended for either platform, this is indicated with one of these flags: Try wherever possible to keep punchlines separate from the preceding text. Teletext is still used on some platforms to carry and/or display subtitles; the BBC expects EBU-TT files that preserve some aspects of this technology (or that have been converted from STL files). For example, the HbbTV standard maps both default and proportionalSansSerif to Tiresias, whereas IMSC maps proportionalSansSerif only to any font with substantially the same dimensions for rendered text as Arial. BBC, namely, British Broadcasting Corporation, is a British public service broadcaster founded in 1927. Single instance of bbctt:systemInfo and multiple instances of bbctt:event, A single event, e.g. bbctt:event, A single event, e.g. Line breaks within a word are especially disruptive to the reading process and should be avoided. Certain special programme types carry a lot of information in the lower part of the screen (e.g. Where snippets of a song are interspersed with any kind of speech, and it would be confusing to subtitle both the lyrics and the speech, it is better to put up a music label and to leave the lyrics unsubtitled. In the examples given above, no markers are used to indicate that segmentation is taking place. ‘BBC Access Services Presentation & Style Guidelines’ (internal document). If the unfinished sentence is a question or exclamation, put three dots (not two) before the question mark or exclamation mark. I've been very happy here. Also take into account the number of words, line breaks etc. If possible, the subtitler should wait for the scene change before displaying the subtitle. The following table lists standard EBU-TT elements and their required values. By convention, the narrator is indicated by a yellow colour. Save. The same cannot be said of iPhones – a “pt” on iPhone X is approximately 1/152nd of an inch. To find out more about the bbcode tags used on this page, please go to the bbcode tags reference page. The number of regions active at any one time must not exceed 4 (IMSC 1 requirement). It is likely to be less tiring for the viewer if shot changes and subtitle changes occur at the same time. If an off-screen speaker is neither to the right nor the left, but straight ahead, do not use an arrow. If two or more white speakers appear in the same scene, you have to use one of a number of devices to indicate who says what - see Identifying Speakers. If the subtitle zero is present, copy the content of subtitle zero from the STL. BBCode formatted text (such as forum posts) to standard HTML. Live subtitles should appear word by word, from left to right, to allow maximum reading time. BBC Font and BBC Logo. The sum of the region's origin x coordinate and extent width must be less than or equal to 87.5% of the root container region for a 16:9 active video (this allows for a 4:3 centre cut). Note that embedded STL files should not be included within EBU-TT-D documents. A dog barking in one scene could be entirely trivial; in another it could be a vital Add labels if required (e.g. Apply a scaling factor based on the device's physical screen size (see, For a 32" TV and an authored font size corresponding to the. Indicate questions asked in an incredulous tone by means of a question mark followed by an exclamation mark (no space): This section deals with accents in speech and dialects. occasions [Empty element. Time the label to coincide with the timing of the first one or two in-vision subtitles. If scaling the line padding, it may be reduced by up to the same percentage as the relative reduction in font size (i.e., if multiplying the font size by 50%, the line padding may be multiplied by a value The below table lists the required document metadata values for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is not yet in active use. based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is the current actively used When the hesitation or interruption occurs in the middle of a sentence that is split across two subtitles, do the following: Where there is no time-lapse between the two subtitles, put three dots at the end of the first subtitle but no dots in the second one. When subtitles are displayed under the image area, vertical displacement will be ignored by the device and only horizontal positioning will be used (e.g. had taken ( When I find out For example: Air is displaced as water is poured into the bottle. If your tool does not support these features, use a WYSIWYG tool the original. Of course, presuming the same font size user setting, the same could be said about “sp” – it’s 1/160th of an inch. Consult the rest ‘ Online Subtitling Editorial has stopped. When no broadcast or online flag is indicated, the text applies to all subtitles. The file name must follow this pattern: [UID with slash removed].stl. online - applies only to subtitles for online use (not for broadcast). While it is not possible (or advisable) to pre-determine the final subtitle size, adhering to the below guidelines will ensure that subtitles are legible at a typical distance from the device and that lines do not reflow or overflow for the he + is; they + will come; it + comes), parts of a complex verb (e.g. This contributes to a known issue where a gap appears between lines of text. Ultimately the subtitler may have to decide whether to make a correction or omit some speech in order to catch up. the Cockney "you was". speaks very fast, you have to edit as much as is necessary in order to meet the timing requirements (see timing). In STL binary files, characters are encoded according to the table in Appendix 1. This attribute acts as a ‘modifier’ to the action defined by the 00:01:29.265). Other platforms use proportional it has no effect if only a single row of text is BBC visual effect but should be avoided. If one shot is too fast for a subtitle, then you can merge the speech for two shots – provided your subtitle then ends at the second shot change. wherever possible. Optional. Slower timings should be used to keep in sync with slow speech. occasions "timeOfDay". The top level element carries parameters needed for presenting the content. How do I change the font size on a story? It should now only make those changes if they are part of a font statement. information. This example can also be downloaded here. Abbreviations can be used to fit text in a line, but if the unit of measurement is the subject do not abbreviate. Try to include speakers' names if available where in-vision captions have been obliterated. if it means that you are thereby "giving the game away" in some way. MUSIC: "The Dance Of someone we can't see or hear is responding. Sections that only apply to one of the specifications are indicated by one of ComboBox^ ComboBox1 = (ComboBox^) sender; // … More time should be given when there are visuals that are important for following the plot, or when there is particularly difficult language. Currently v1.0. There’s no wisdom to destroy. 'I've lived in the You should therefore check with the commissioning editor that this minimal The TTML styling namespace - for style attributes, The EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D style extension namespace, The EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D metadata extension namespace. element. Amongst many smaller tweaks, in this version the following changes are notable: Thank you to everyone who has helped to review this version. be able to detect a language change, then you must find an appropriate label. Full-Clock-value: hh:mm:ss followed by an optional fraction When cueing prepared texts for scripted parts of the programme: Subtitles should use upper and lower case as appropriate. The attribute can have one of these values only (see, Background colour of an inline area generated by a. Required. Note additional attributes may be required. Text intended to guide developers in how to meet editorial guidelines is placed in sections like this within the Presentation section. These may be similarly hard to edit. ‘ITC Guidance on Standards for Indicates whether timecode uses "programme" time for pre-recorded subtitles or "timeOfDay" UTC time for live authored subtitles. Authoring tools may use automated shot detection to avoid this scenario. tt:div and tt:p elements may reference a region. However, if the speaker is very easy to lip-read, slipping out of sync even by a second may spoil any dramatic effect and make the subtitles harder to follow. Sets a generic or a named font family. In factual wildlife, for instance, lions would be labelled: However, in an animation or a game, it may be more appropriate to convey animal noises phonetically. The element carries the timed content that is to be presented, in a

, You may need to request the service identifier The Sugar Plum Fairy", SHE WHISTLES "The The word "I" is a special case. Bear in mind, however, that it will not always be appropriate to merge the speech from two shots: e.g. Used to link an item with an external system. improve readability. is unchanged -- view. Styling and layout are applicative, in other words styling and positional information are defined and identified, and content specifies the styles and positioning by referencing those identified Spell out any number that begins a sentence: If there is more than one number in a sentence or list, it may be more appropriate to display them as numerals instead of words: On her 21st birthday party, 54 guests A foreign speaker may make grammatical mistakes that do not render the sense incomprehensible but make the subtitle difficult to read in the given time. It is also very important to keep your timings consistent. If a speaker speaks very slowly, then the subtitles will have to be slow, too - even if this means breaking the timing conventions. ebuttm:documentMaximumNumberOf DisplayableCharacterInAnyRow. EBU-TT-D Annex C in Confusion is most likely to arise when the in-vision speaker and the voice-over speaker are the same person. Defines the time coordinate system for all time expressions. required extended BBC metadata values for BBC subtitle documents In EBU-TT-D, the begin time of the subtitle is inclusive, but the end time is turned up. have + eaten; will + have + been + doing), Scaling the root container to avoid overlap, Detecting and resolving screen area clashes by moving subtitles around. For example, on a very large TV the subtitles may appear too large when displayed at the original authored size, so the processor can apply a scaling factor, or a multiplier of less than 1, to the value of fontSize. The BBC Sport website has undergone some big changes. opera and hymns, where it could be easier to determine the correct punctuation, it is more appropriate to punctuate throughout. If the song is unknown, you could also edit the lyrics, but famous songs like Ernie must not be edited. For example, EBU-TT-D files for online distribution can use the default cell resolution of 32x15 (see EBU-TT-D cell resolution). This should be avoided by editing the previous subtitles. Sound-effect labels should be as brief as possible and should have the following structure: subject + active, finite verb: There is no obvious value for ttm:role for such labels. Try to not squeeze The BBC currently uses version 1.0 of EBU-TT, but intends to Note that in the spirit of an iterative process, there may be further releases making improvements to the developer guidance. Where the speech for two or more speakers of different colours is combined in one subtitle, their speech runs on: i.e. height and may have to rely on other data, for example pixel size and resolution (which may not be reliable indicators of physical size). If you are unable to use any other technique, use a label to identify a speaker, but only if it is unclear who was speaking or when more than four characters are speaking, requiring a shared colour. If the STL file is embedded using ebuttm:binaryData, do not use this element. Any subtitle text in a tt:p must be within a Required if also targeting broadcast applications. No! Defines whether a region area is clipped if the content of the region overflows the specified extent of the region. Do not edit out words that can be clearly lip-read. seek advice on the appropriate subtitle timing for a programme. Oh. I'm calling about your car.'. The last song subtitle should end with a full stop, unless the song continues in the background. Similarly, if a man is clearly sobbing or laughing, or if an audience is clearly clapping, do not label. Similarly, conversational phrases like "you know", "well", "actually" often add flavour to the text. The BBC has commissioned a new typeface, BBC Reith which will make text easier to read on screen and “will also save the BBC money”. We intend to release small updates often. Remove unnecessary line breaks and white space at the beginning or end of a place to hide away Subtitling’. 10:10:10:20 would map in an EBU-TT document to an This is a non-compliant behaviour that the subtitle author and broadcaster have no control over. The BBC is not the only media organisation to design its own typeface. In combination with other attributes, controls, The active lines within the region are aligned in the block progression direction to the before edge of the region (for, In an EBU-TT-D or other TTML document (e.g. Defines an area in which subtitle content is to be placed. In particular, the focus here is on EBU-TT-D creation for online only subtitle delivery; where there is commonality with EBU-TT Part 1 delivery for archive and downstream conversion to a distribution format this is described; however Hello. Depending on device size, viewing distance, screen resolution etc., a processor (such as a player) may choose to reduce (but not to increase) the authored font size so that the final presentation font size is smaller than the authored Subtitle fonts are determined by the platform, the delivery mechanism and the client as detailed below.

elements each being the same as the previous but with the new word or phrase appended, because it is simpler to extract the plain text version when this approach is used. most likely to be the case in factual content, and too many "ums" can make the speaker appear ridiculous.). Ensure that lines are not too long and that a
tag is present for every line break within a subtitle. Improving the viewer experience'. This means that if you want one subtitle to follow another without any gaps, you should set the end time of the first subtitle to be the same as the begin time of the following subtitle. If there is time for verbatim speech, do not edit unnecessarily. In the absence of other information, a default size of 0.5° subtended at the eye may be used to derive the default line height and calculate the multiplier, however this may be too small for some devices. Each part will appear on screen at a different time, in sync with its speaker, but all parts will have an identical out-cue. For instance, a detailed explanation of an economic or scientific story may prove almost impossible to edit without depriving the viewer of vital information. with a couple of extensions. Making subtitle files for online-only content: if your software does not support EBU-TT-D you will need to create an XML file yourself. The subtitler should put up a label explaining the cause. The below table lists the required document metadata values for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1, which is the current actively used format. You All letters are in a non-slanted way, as opposed to its previous block logos. Including this information is useful for searching, identifying speakers and other purposes. 37 characters, reduced if coloured text is used, 68% of the width of a 16:9 video and 90% of the width of a 4:3 video, Each subtitle should comprise a single complete sentence. on its own with a fast timing (or to merge it with what comes afterwards) than to anticipate it by merging with the previous subtitle. ebuttm). 1.2 seconds for a 4-word subtitle). If s/he then starts a new sentence, no continuation dots are necessary. In this case you can only control line length by counting characters per line, and you should test your file thoroughly on different browsers and systems before delivery. Do not Oh. For the file name, see EBU-TT-D file. we're in big trouble. The eye has least distance to travel from ‘hope’ to ‘you’. Presentation implementations are expected to map these to device pixels for optimum display of text. been married four years and have four childs, yes. can adversely impact clarity of presented text. Disable automatic line wrapping so that the editor creates line break manually. For a Cockney speaker, for instance, it would be appropriate to include quite a few "caffs", "missus" and "ain'ts", but not to replace every single dropped "h" and "g" with an apostrophe.,, accommodates overscan, so the 8% is approximate. #. Avoid editing out catchwords if a phrase would become unrecognisable if edited. If the BBC has decided to edit any strong language, then your subtitles must reflect this in the following ways. However, when time is short, place brackets around the whispered speech: If the whispered speech continues over more than one subtitle, brackets can start to look very messy, so a label in the first subtitle is preferable. Note that these instructions are for creating a bare-bones file that does not include many of the features required by the BBC. Use a wide font such as Verdana to minimise the risk of text overflowing the region when rendered in the final display font. Subtitle vertical position can be set by referencing a region with appropriate tts:origin, tts:extent and tts:displayAlign attributes. Snow Live subtitles should be placed in an appropriately sized If necessary, an apology should be made at the end of the programme. Save the file with a .ebuttd.xml file extension. [Timezone in ISO 8601 when ttp:timebase="clock" AND Where we have control over the distribution and presentation chain those constraints It includes elements for audio description and signs-language documents that can be omitted for subtitle files. Also, if you do edit the tense, you have to make it consistent throughout the rest of the text. On the whole, you should aim for subtitles that are faithful to the audio. When raising new issues please summarise in a short line the issue in the Title field and include enough information in the Description field, as well as the selected text, to allow the team to identify the relevant part(s) of the document. 3.2h (3 hours and 12 minutes). 'The quality of live subtitling - Instead, allow a single long sentence to extend over more than one subtitle. action. You may have to edit more to ensure that the lines are short enough to look placed. Additionally, different browsers render different line heights for the begin time expression that is the first coordinate in the document time line). Descriptions of values are given in brackets: [a number between 1 and 3]. This is not a complete file: multiple instances of elements have been removed and long values shortened. Subtitlers and authoring software are expected to manage Release 1. If one of the lines is long, inevitably all the text will be towards the left of the screen, but generally the aim is to keep When present, the STL file(s) must be embedded in an EBU-TT document. As well as dialogue, all editorially significant sound effects must be subtitled. Indicates a BBC requirement that is additional to the base (general) specification. In a formal context, where a speaker would not use contractions, you should not use them either. example). If an item is already particularly concise, it may be impossible to edit it into subtitles at standard timings without losing a crucial element of BBC specifications based on version 1.1 of EBU-TT Part 1 are exchange format', TECH. tts:direction and tts:writingMode applied to the element. Prefer proportional fonts if there is a choice. Anything shorter than this produces a very jerky effect. , [Single instance of bbctt:systemInfo and multiple instances of If the STL file is embedded, use the revisionNumber attribute of region with a preset tts:origin x coordinate (for left to right text; for right to left text ensure the right edge is preset). The duration of the overhang will depend on the content. However, always consider the alternative of merging with another subtitle. Only the attributes inUnit or outUnit are specified]. Can you think of anything you could do with all the heat produced in the incinerator? screen, speed of speech or editing and visual content. times, should be represented by timed Typically delivered as a separate file, closed subtitles can be switched off by the user and are not 'burnt in' to the image. Generate a warning if the line padding causes the text to overflow. If the subtitle zero is included in the embedded STL file and is included in the body of the EBU-TT document then they SHALL be identical. The subtitler should have a direct pre-broadcast-encoding feed from the broadcaster, so they can hear the output a few seconds earlier than if relying on the broadcast­ service. v1.0 specifications are stable. News and documentaries. The Based on the recommended rate of 160-180 words per minute, you should aim to leave a subtitle on screen for a minimum period of around 0.3 seconds per word (e.g. Use caps to indicate when a word is stressed. ... Will the BBC be adding new features to the BBC News Android app? Allowances would therefore have to be made by breaking the line at a linguistically non-coherent point: Oh. You can click here to refresh with a new set. What are you doing with that hammer? somebody playing an instrument/a record playing/music on a jukebox or radio, then write the label in upper case: MILITARY BAND PLAYS sound-effect label should be used: Song lyrics are almost always subtitled - whether they are part of the action or not. If a subtitle zero is included in the embedded STL file then its content SHALL be copied into ebuttm:subtitleZero element. In particular, see Annex E of EBU-TT-D regarding quantisation of timing for example if the video can only be presented at a low frame rate, such as in poor network conditions. on + the table; in + a way; about + his life), conjunction and following phrase/clause (e.g. positioning is not sufficient to avoid obscuring important information, for example when placing the captions above a graphic would cover a face. Remember that dots are only used to indicate a pause or an unfinished sentence. Sample file: XML Schema See. Set this explicitly even if using defaults. All subtitles will appear in white text on a black background and centred at the bottom of the screen. However, you can spell out numbers when this is editorially justified as detailed below. Song subtitles should also reflect as closely as possible the rhythm and pace of a performance, particularly when this is the focus of the editorial proposition. also user-defined preferences. The above is more applicable to factual content, e.g. However, where requirements exist that are specific for the authoring or processing of subtitle documents, they are listed separately under the relevant XML element. There is no constraint on adding manual breaks regardless of the value of tts:wrapOption.