Nursery bed is then drenched with Captan solution two days before sowing to avoid the attack of damping off disease in brinjal nursery. Seed Production B. SINGH, PROJECT COORDINATOR ALL INDIA COORDINATED RESEARCH PROJECT ON VEGETABLE CROPS pccelliivr@gmail.com, bsinghiivr@gmail.com ... Brinjal 250 2500 Okra 3800 19000 Hot pepper 403 3224 Tomato 300 4285 Cauliflower 400 … India’s share of global vegetable production is 9.2% compared to 36.6% of China. This is quite natural as eggplant originated in India. At 11.6%, Bt cotton in India already accounts for the fifth largest acreage of GM crops in the world. The transgenic brinjal was developed to resist the fruit and shoot borer, a pest that can reduce the plant’s productivity by 70%. Cultivar Description for Seed Production: There are open-pollinated and F 1 hybrid cultivars. 2. For the seed production, it is essential to produce healthy crop & plant should be true to … This article first appeared on IndiaSpend, a data-driven and public-interest journalism non-profit. Water before and after sowing. Seeds of brinjal are sown in nursery beds which are 3 meter long, 1 meter wide and15 cm high. The trials are to be held in seven states with the approval of state agricultural departments between 2020 and 2023. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. You can start planting your brinjal plants indoors when April month starts. The moratorium was driven by several factors – the lack of consensus on Bt technology in the scientific community, the absence of independent biosafety studies, public mistrust and opposition from the 10 major brinjal producing states, mentioned Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in a report. The unregulated use of GM technology could kill this abundance of local varieties, farm activists argue. As of this date, Scribd will manage your SlideShare account and any content you may have on SlideShare, and Scribd's General Terms of Use and Privacy Policy will apply. But environmental experts are warning that unbridled and unplanned growth could set Bt brinjal on the same trajectory as Bt cotton, whose commercialisation has been marked by poorly regulated field trials, inadequate safeguards and lack of transparency, and replaced other varieties by covering over 93% of all cotton acreage in India. In May, the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee approved the new Bt brinjal seed and in September, it approved the field trials of two varieties produced by a lesser-known Jalna-based private firm, Beejsheetal Research Private Ltd. “The technology has a limit of about five years,” said GV Ramanjaneyulu, executive director, Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, an independent research organisation in Hyderabad. The new Bt brinjal variety is different from the one released in 2002, as per the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and uses indigenous transgenic varieties of brinjal hybrids Janak and BSS-793. Eight years after the deployment of Bt cotton, India became the number one producer of cotton globally and the second-largest cotton exporter in the world. Supporters of the technology like the Alliance for Agriculture Innovation, an agri-tech industry body, sent a letter to the central government along with eight other state governments asking that commercialisation of Bt brinjal be allowed. “The bigger problem that farmers face is of price rather than productivity,” noted Ramanjaneyulu. India produces 26% of the total 32 million tons of world brinjal production … Bt technology could increase the production of brinjal and create a surplus in the market, leading to a price crash. Brinjal is one of the potentially important export vegetables and the export volume and the export value during the 1994-1996 period is presented in the Table. Meanwhile, the Bt brinjal developed by Mayhco faced biopiracy allegations in 2010. The cry1Ac gene is widely used in Bt cotton and the protein is a component of many organic biopesticides. Limited seed production of Bt Brinjal hybrids for BRL-II trials was approved by the GEAC in 2010. Farmers in India started to cultivate Bt cotton much before its legal commercialisation. There’s no particular eggplant seed preparation necessary prior to sowing. Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop of sub-tropics and tropics. It is estimated that quality of seed accounts for 20-25% of productivity. Eggplant is best grown transplanted. Toxins in the form of Cry1Ac claimed to have the ability to kill bollworms, the biggest pestilence for cotton crops. Seed Production of Brinjal: Isolation Distance: 1. A strong, vegetative growth habit makes eggplant fairly adaptable to a range of growing conditions. No public clipboards found for this slide. The brinjal, on the other hand, is already grown in such abundance that India accounts for 27% of the world’s supply, second only to China. These varieties were developed by inserting a protein gene (Cry1Fa1) from a soil bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into the brinjal’s DNA. Seed rate 450 g/ha. Besides these dominant geographical types, there are some other types as well in small pockets. In recent years, it has increased in im-portance as a protected crop in Northern Europe. In 1993, the Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Co (Mahyco), an agricultural company based in Mumbai, partnered with Monsanto, an American agrochemical company (acquired by Bayer in 2018) to bring the Bt cotton technology to India. “The traits should not be allowed to escape into the environment as was the case with Bt cotton,” said Indra Shekhar Singh, director of policy and outreach at National Seed Association of India, while supporting the field trials of Bt brinjal. The moratorium would be lifted after satisfactory independent scientific studies had been conducted. Breeder/foundation seed – 200 m . Water the tray very lightly so that the soil mix is not disturbed. Eggplant seeds germinate at temps between 60-95 degrees F. (15-35 C.) and seedlings will emerge in seven to 10 days. In all cases, Cry1Ac has a long hi… The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee of the environment ministry has allowed the field testing of two indigenous varieties of Bt brinjal developed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in eight states – Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Tamil Nadu. Dr. T.H.Singh, Principal Scientist Cross pollination is mainly through honey bees and bumble bees. Line sow 200-250g of seeds/ha in seedbed with one part animal manure and ½ part carbonated rice hull. • Production … Even supporters of Bt brinjal agree that the risk of unwanted pollination must be mitigated. In May, the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee approved the new Bt brinjal seed and in September, it approved the field trials of two varieties produced by a … This illegal cultivation occurred in parts of Gujarat in the late 1990s. “The new variety has not been brought in the public domain and has been quietly given approval when the country was in lockdown due to the pandemic,” said Kavitha Kuruganti, the national convenor of Alliance for Sustainable & Holistic Agriculture. The search for new technologies or even technological modifications in the seed production system has been constant in seed research, resulting in changes in the various stages of the seed production process and leading to their improvement. Brinjal seeds are sown on nursery beds to raise seedlings for transplanting in the field. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Place the soil in a loose manner into your pot, but make sure that it is not getting compressed. Tomato. Brinjal seed production for gkvk 31 10-18. In 2002, about 10,000 ha of Bt cotton was reported to be planted in Gujarat alone, with other areas in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka reporting significant areas under illegal Bt cotton too. Transplant the seedlings 30 – 35 days after sowing at 60 cm apart … Meanwhile, the National Institute of Plant Biotechnology, under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, developed a new Bt brinjal seed. While eggplant generally grows best in dependably warm and settled weather, we trial eggplant varieties for performance in less favorable conditions, as well as for superior flavor and appearance. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. These characteristics could be pest resistance (cotton), additional nutrition (Golden Rice) or herbicide tolerance (cotton, soybean, etc). We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Well rotten farm yard manure is then mixed in nursery bed. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. This will benefit consumers far more than the farmers, noted the National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research. the quality of eggplant seed are not ensured at the grower’s level. Mulch with rice hull or straw and provide partial shading. Open-pollinated seeds consistently reproduce with the same characteristics in every generation, whereas the progeny of hybrids do not ensure consistency of characteristics. Scribd will begin operating the SlideShare business on December 1, 2020 Native to Asia, this tender annual requires full sun, well-draining, slightly acidic, fertile soil and a long growing season. The need to preserve indigenous crop varieties and seeds is also well established. Farmer can expect a yield of 30 to 35 tonnes per hectare in 140 to 150 days after planting. The ministry, instead of destroying the illegal crops and compensating farmers for the destruction, allowed the commercialisation of Bt cotton in March 2002. Brinjal seed treatment procedure: Treat the brinjal seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / kg of seed. vegetables like tomato, cabbage, brinjal, chilli, okra and cu curbits where the seed production of OPVs and hybrids is comparatively easy and more profitable. This means that they become resistant to the protein that is toxic for them. The trials are to be held in seven states with the approval of state agricultural departments between 2020 and 2023. The borer cannot digest the artificial protein, which kills it. • India ranked second in brinjal production. The India-based Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company (Mahyco) used a Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac gene to transform brinjal to be resistant to EFSB (Shelton et al., 2017). The Karnataka Biodiversity Board waited to take any action in the case till 2015 and thereafter passed the case to National Biodiversity Authority. However, in 2010, the then environmental minister, Jairam Ramesh, put a moratorium on the commercialisation of Bt brinjal amid public outcry and debate on health and biodiversity issues. In raised nursery beds, sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart and cover with sand. This approach is “both responsible to science and responsive to society”, he said in a statement. Phone:080-28466420 extn 284; Mob;09449658713 Certified seed – 100 m . IIHR, Hessaraghatta Lake Post; Bangalore-560 089 To avoid unwanted pollination, precautions and regulations have to be observed during field trials and cultivation of Bt crops. Age of seedling 30 - 35 days Advances in Variety Maintenance and Seed Production of Vegetable Crops The nod from the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee is only the first step towards the commercialisation of Bt Brinjal. Plantation of seeds for growing brinjal in pots: Brinjal plants will need a temperature of minimum 13°C or more, which will be tough to provide in the outdoor location at the time of spring. The Environment Support Group, a Bengaluru-based trust, accused Mahyco of using brinjal varieties from Karnataka and Tamil Nadu without giving credit or taking permission from the state biodiversity board. It has been cultivated in India for 4,000 years, in 2,500 varieties, as per this 2010 Ministry of Environment and Forests note that argued that native crops should not be exposed to GM technology. Improving Planting Value of Vegetable Seeds by Physical and Physiological Methods V K Pandita 38-47 5. After a decade of moratorium on Bt brinjal, India allowed field trials to start in September, marking the first step towards the commercial marketing of what will be India’s second GM or genetically modified crop – after Bt cotton – and very first GM food crop. In 2009, biosafety research level, BRL-I, trials were initiated by BSSPL at three locations with two Bt Brinjal hybrids — Janak Bt and BSS 793 Bt — in Jalna, Varanasi and Guntur. While Monsanto could sue farmers in the US for reusing, exchanging or saving the seeds, strong Indian legislations like Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Rights Act 2001 did not allow it to do so in India. The new GM technology seeds are more expensive and have to be bought afresh for every planting season since reusing them reduces their productivity. However, brinjal does not need the push cotton did. Eggplant varieties differ in size, shape, color, and maturation time. Now cover the tray with a polythene sheet and keep the tray in a warm place. Therefore, to sustain the characteristics, farmers must buy seeds for each sowing cycle. India’s seed policies and laws such as the Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Rights Act, 2001 give farmers the freedom to sow, save, exchange and sell seeds and give private investors less motivation to introduce open-pollinated seeds in India. In 2005, Mahyco, along with University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, began developing Bt brinjal in India. Such regulations could not be implemented in countries like India and China because of the small size of farms. Hence, while the new GM technology increased production, it also increased the farmers’ expenditure. Seed production based on the type of seed used for multiplication .The difference between In May 2020, the GEAC approved the new Bt brinjal seed and in September 2020, it approved the field trials of two varieties produced by a lesser known Jalna-based private firm, Beejsheetal Research Private Ltd. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Cover the seeds with more seed tray mix so that the seeds are just covered with 2-3 mm of the mix. 2. Treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 40 g / 400 g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive. The first generation, Bt cotton, Bollgard I was introduced in 2002, and soon after Monsanto launched Bollgard II in 2004, which started to show resistance in 2009 in India to bollworms. Supporters of GM science claim this technology can increase the productivity and profits of brinjal farmers by reducing pesticide use. Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Eggplant is a highly diverse crop widely cultivated around the globe. Fill the seedling trays with soil loosely. The United States Environmental Protection Agency suggests 0.8 km of non-Bt fields around cotton fields. 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States have the power to decide whether or not to allow field trials. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Bt cotton catered to the need to increase the production of and income from cotton farming by protecting the crop from the bollworm that laid waste to vast swathes of cotton crop. If you're looking for something a little different than the standard dark purple eggplant, your best option may be to start your own eggplant from seed. In 2019, Haryana farmers were reported to be growing Bt brinjal illegally with seeds that were suspected to be trafficked from Bangladesh. Selection of fields for brinjal seed production is very important for maintaining produce quality and quantity. Field trials led to illegal cultivation and this promoted and hastened the process of commercialisation, noted Ian Scones, co-director, STEPS Centre at Institute of Development Studies, Sussex. Raised beds of size 7.2 x 1.2 m and 10-15 cm in height are prepared. Concerns over safety, and hence the need for proper regulation, safeguards and transparency, are even more pressing since Bt brinjal is a food crop, which Bt cotton is not. Email:Singh .H T@icar.gov.in / ttejavathu41@mail.com Water regularly. It is an important vegetable in India, China and Japan. • Production : China ranked first with share 64% production of entire world. One week before transplanting, expose to full sunlight. Nursery preparation Nursery is drenched with Metham sodium @ 28ml/sq.m. ADVANCES IN SEED & HYBRID PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN EGGPLANT. Advances in Hybrids Seed Production of Vegetable Crops B S Tomar, G S Jat, and Jogendra Singh 19-37 4. Remove the broken, coloured seeds and use uniformly graded seeds. The vegetable fruit is long (lengthy oblong) in shape and pale green in color. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Round Green Eggplant. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Learn more. The seeds in the fruits are soft seeded and less and bittler less. Introduction: • Annual herbaceous, self pollinated crop • Brinjal also known as eggplant. Seed rate is 3 – 4 kg/acre (8 – 10 kg/ha) for kharif crop and 4 – 6 kg/acre (10 – 15 kg/ha) for summer crop. State governments would do well to avoid a repeat of the Bt cotton experience. Ideal temperature needed for seeds to germinate is 20°C. Seed technology of any 34,600 / ha and Average Producer Price of Rs. In case of summer crop, the seeds … Growing Brinjal in Pots from seed To grow eggplants from seeds, you need a seedling tray, or you can directly sow the seeds. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit.. In 2015, Nagpur-based Central Institute of Cotton Research found that the bollworm had developed resistance to the second-generation BT cotton seeds as well. Eggplant Seed Production N.C. Chen Introduction The eggplant originates from India and is now gen-erally grown as a vegetable throughout the tropi-cal, sub-tropical and warm temperate areas of the world. Bt cotton was launched as open-pollinated seeds in countries such as the United States and China. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. While India’s cotton acreage and yield increased between 2005 and 2017, Studies indicate that without the use of pesticides and other chemicals, productivity reduced. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Seed is a key component among all inputs for sustainable crop production. GM crops, as we said, are developed by infusing into plants foreign genes that carry characteristics that are not natural to the plant genome. This has been the experience with Bt cotton already. Seed production techniques for brinjal Application of 200 kg N/ha recorded the highest seed yield of 7.32q/ha.Application in only 2 splits ie., 50% at the time of transplanting and the remaining 50% at 30 days later recorded higher seed yield with better quality. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. However, experts point out that brinjal is not in need of GM intervention in India. 4.00/kg) The average world productivity of brinjal, reported by the Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, stands at 25 tonnes per hectare. Globe eggplants are traditional large purple or… Seed production Though brinjal is considered a self pollinated crop, varying amount of cross pollination takes place because of heterostyly. India ranked at 70 in the global cotton productivity list but ranked eighth in brinjal productivity with 17.5 tonnes per hectare. Production of Bt-Brinjal: India is the second largest producer of vegetables and brinjal in the world after China. Selected seeds should be treated appropriately. Eggplant is a popular greenhouse crop due to the high yield potential, rapid growth, and improved quality possible over a longer season. The lines should be 10-15 cm apart. Once the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee approved the transgenic seeds, Bt brinjal underwent field trials between 2002 and 2006. You have many more options open to you when you start from seed: tender Asian varieties, pretty little egg-shaped eggplants, and a range of colors, from white to green to purple, including some very pretty striped varieties. Brinjal seed production for gkvk 31 10-18 1. The pests that feed on cotton and brinjal are monophagous – that is, they eat only one kind of food. Division of Vegetable Crops 1. The following outline is based on George (1999). • India share 22% production of the world. For the Indian market, it developed hybrid seed varieties, which farmers would have to buy afresh. Drop 3-4 eggplant seeds in each cup of the tray. Advances in Quality Seed Production of Onion A K Sharma 7-18 3. If they do, state authorities are responsible for submitting a biosafety report and a no-objection certificate to allow commercial farming of GM crops. This technology thus needs to be constantly upgraded, said Cotton Association of India, Maharashtra, in a 2019 report. By controlling fruit and shoot borer with Bt technology, “we can save farmers’ income, reduce pesticide load on the environment and provide pesticide- and insect-free brinjals to consumers”, said Ram Kaundinya, director general of Alliance for Agriculture Innovation, in a press release dated August 6. There have already been news reports about illegal cultivation of Bt brinjal in Haryana. However, sustainable agriculture activists point to how fast technology turns obsolete. Dr. T.H.Singh, Principal Scientist Division of Vegetable Crops IIHR, Hessaraghatta Lake Post; Bangalore-560 089 Phone:080-28466420 extn 284; Mob;09449658713 Email:Singh .H T@icar.gov.in / ttejavathu41@mail.com ADVANCES IN SEED & HYBRID PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN EGGPLANT The most common genetically engineered crops around the world are cotton, soybean and corn. National Average Yield, Unite Cost of production and Net return of Brinjal during 1998-2001 (Assuming Cost of Production is Rs. Irrigate with a rose can. To encourage pollination, it is advisable to plant Mimosa pudica in the vicinity of brinjal plot. Raised beds are necessary to avoid problem of water logging in heavy soils. (VEPAM) 15 days before sowing for controlling the nematodes and after 7 days of sowing , drench with Fytolan @ 2.5 g/lit of water against damping off disease. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. Greenhouse growing maximizes production by growing the crop fast at a high temperature and high planting density. At Mayasandra village in South Bengaluru, a seed plot maintained by farmer Kantharaj has as many as 15 heirloom varieties of brinjal. Details such as the parental gene used should be made public through government notifications, she argued, adding that information regarding the biosafety of the crop that she had sought through the Right to Information was denied – on the basis that it would violate the commercial interests of the parties concerned. In sandy soils, however, sowing can be taken up in flat beds. Price crash and China therefore, to sustain the characteristics, farmers must buy for... Mix is not disturbed, it also increased the farmers’ expenditure we use your profile. Technology seeds are more expensive and have to be constantly upgraded, said cotton Association India. 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